### Definition

In e-NVH, slotting force harmonics refer for **Maxwell force harmonics linked to slotting effects** only (airgap permeance fluctuations due to rotor and stator slots), which means magnetic force harmonics independent of saturation harmonics, eccentricity or uneven airgap harmonics, as well as stator winding harmonics.

More precisely, as any force harmonic is due to the product of two flux density harmonics B1 and B2, these force harmonics can be written as

where

- P1 is a first permeance harmonic
- P2 is a second permeance harmonics
- F1=F2=F0 is the fundamental magnetomotive force

As the noise and vibration frequencies are the same as the exciting force frequencies, **slotting harmonics** can also refer to some specific harmonics of the acoustic noise spectrum or vibration velocity spectrum.

Slotting harmonics should disappear when the machine has virtually closed slots (equivalently, high permeability magnetic wedges) or is slotless (airgap winding).

### Application to e-NVH

In **induction machines** at no-load, slotting harmonics can be more precisely derived as
where

- Ps (resp. Pr) stands for stator (resp. rotor) slot permeance harmonic
- F0s is the fundamental stator magnetomotive force

One can show that the resulting force wavenumbers r and associated frequency f are given by

where

- ks (resp. kr) is the rank of stator (resp. rotor) permeance harmonic (0 for DC permeance, 1 for highest magnitude permeance harmonic)
- fs is the fundamental electrical frequency
- Zs (resp Zr) is the stator (resp. rotor) slot number
- s is the fundamental slip

In **permanent magnet synchronous machines without rotor saliency**, the resulting force wavenumbers r and associated frequency f are given by

In **permanent magnet synchronous machines with rotor saliency**, the resulting force wavenumbers r and associated frequency f are given by

In spectrograms slotting harmonics appear as straight lines crossing the origin:

**Illustration of main electromagnetic noise and vibration lines in spectrograms (case of an induction motor)**

### Noise control actions

A key design parameter to control slotting effects is the** slot/pole combination**.
Additional influential parameters include** slot opening geometry, notches, magnetic wedges**.

### Application to MANATEE

MANATEE software electromagnetic models account for all slotting effects. Force harmonics are automatically labelled with the corresponding frequency and wavenumber expressions.

An automated analysis of slotting harmonics is available. Slotting effects can be cancelled to check if they are the root cause of acoustic noise and vibrations.

MANATEE includes the modelling of notches and magnetic wedges.